HKA’s integrated research programme, CRUX, draws on our unprecedented bank of knowledge to provide valuable insights into the pattern of causation on engineering and construction projects where our people have provided claims consulting and dispute resolution services on major capital projects across multiple sectors around the world.

As the world’s leading construction claims and dispute resolution firm in the industry, we have access to a rich resource of major project data from 1000s of projects with a combined value exceeding US$1 trillion. All decision-makers on projects can profit from a clearer understanding of the recurring causes of claims and disputes. We encourage governments and professional bodies to engage with the CRUX research programme’s findings and its implications for planning, procurement, project governance and controls.

Use the filters below to view the causation factors by sector and region. Contact the CRUX team ( if you would like a deeper analysis by sub-sector, sub-region or contract or a comparison of each.

CRUX Report
Claims and Dispute Causation: A Global Market Sector Analysis

  • Analysis identified over 4,000 causes of dispute on 700 projects across six sectors in 72 countries.
  • Dominant drivers of disputes are a significant lack of control over scope and design, along with poor drafting and administration of contracts. Skills gaps, cultural differences and overinflated claims are also prevalent within the web of interrelated causation factors.

CRUX Report
Claims and Dispute Causation, A Digital Perspective

  • Illustrates how, by embracing digitalisation, engineering and construction organisations can improve project controls resulting in dispute avoidance by proxy, and reduced cost of claims and disputes.
  • Over 3,000 causation factors across 257 commissions were examined and unveiled the complexity of causation on major projects. Complexity is widely underestimated by all but the most experienced practitioners.